Geo-spatial Technology Based Cadastral Mapping Services and Solution: A Case Study of Implementation in the State of Sikkim in India.


Government of India has launched an ambitious programme called National Land Record Modernization Programme where digitization of cadastral maps and its integration with the Records of Rights (ROR) is a key component.The state governments are facilitated with financial and technical supports to enable them to achieve this goal. The State of Sikkim lies in the north eastern part of India in the Himalayan range.


The state has 2600 cadastral maps for nearly 456 revenue villages that were prepared after the survey of 1978. These maps were initially scanned and digitized in autocad (dwg) format in 1997 and were archived for reference. With the ardent effort of NIC these maps have been now converted to shape files and are geo-referenced in ArcGIS to produce mosaic for revenue villages, revenue circles, subdivisions, districts and for state. Few other basic GIS operations and functionalities include Digital Verification of Scanned Images, Digital Verification of Vector Data viz. Digitization Errors such as undershoot/ overshoots, dangles, silver, missing plot ids etc. And finally Import of Vector Data to Spatial Database.  Both raster and well as vector mosaics are maintained in parallel.


research_wkIn present scope of work, cadastral maps are maintained within village boundaries with proper village index defining association, direction and orientation among plots constituting the village. This is to ensure “whole to part approach” and keeping errors confined to village boundaries.  An open source GIS software tool called Bhu-naksha developed by NIC further take care of the map updation, mutation and linking with the records of rights. The moment the cadastral maps for one revenue village is fully updated incorporating the latest mutations, further mutations on any parcel for this village is a part of the online mutation process.

The Bhu-naksha software tool has options for divisions of parcels using one or more methods that can divide the parcel in question into desired number of plots with desired directions, areas and topology. It has been proposed that a citizen applies for the mutation of his land in a counter where his details are entered and a receipt is generated bearing a number. If all papers are in order he will receive his computer printed and signed record of right and the map of his plot of land within next half an hour. Even when there is no mutation, a citizen can walk in any number of times and walk out with copy of computer printed map by paying the requisite map fee. The system caters to both Government of Government (G2G) as well as Government to Citizens (G2C) services in wholesome open source GIS domain.

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